Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Sony Ericsson Spiro

Sony Ericsson Spiro
Expected Price: 4300 Rs.

2G Network, GSM 900 / 1800, GSM 850 / 1900
Dimensions:                  92 x 48 x 16.8 mm
Weight:             90 g
Display Type:               TFT, 256K colors
Display Size:                 240 x 320 pixels, 2.2 inches
Sound Alert types:       Vibration; MP3 ringtones
Loudspeaker:               Yes
3.5mm jack:                 Yes
Phonebook:                  2000 entries, Photocall
Call records:                 Yes
Internal Memory:          5 MB
Card slot:                     microSD, up to 16GB
GPRS:                          Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps
EDGE:                         Class 10, 236.8 kbps
3G:                               No
WLAN            :                       No
Bluetooth:                     Yes, v2.1 with A2DP
Infrared port:                No
USB:                            Yes, microUSB v2.0
Camera:                       2 MP, 1600x1200 pixels
Video:                          Yes
Secondary Camera:      No
Messaging:                   SMS, MMS, Email, Push Email, IM
Browser:                      WAP 2.0/xHTML, HTML
Radio:                          Stereo FM radio with RDS
Games:             Yes + downloadable
Colors:                         Contrast Black, Sunset Pink, Spring Green, Stealth Black
GPS:                            No
Java:                             Yes, MIDP 2.0
Other  Applications:      Walkman 4.0 player, MP3/eAAC+/WAV player, Track ID, MP4/H.263/H.264 player, Facebook, Twitter applications, Organizer, Flashlight, Predictive text input
Battery:                        Standard battery, Li-Ion
Stand-by:                     Up to 476 h
Talk time:                     Up to 4 h 30 min
Music play:                   Up to 20 h

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Recycle Plastic 2

Type 2 Plastic – High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
The acronym HDPE (high density polyethylene) is often used to refer to type 2 plastic. HDPE plastic is often used to make bottles for beverages with short shelf life, such as milk and juice. Because HDPE has good chemical resistance, it is also often used for containing household and industrial chemicals such as detergents and bleach. HDPE is also used to manufacture grocery and retain bags. HDPE plastic can be recycled into bottles for holding household chemicals such as detergent, shampoo, conditioner and even motor oil. Recycled HDPE plastic can also be made into pipes, buckets and bins, pens, flower pots, film and sheets, benches.

Saturday, July 9, 2011

Inventions: Bicycle

The name Bicycle dates from 1869. Various precursors of it were known as velocipedes, from a French name dating from the late 18th century. Basic two-wheeled vehicles driven by the feet were popular as early as the second half of the 17th century. In 1690 a Frenchman invented the celerifere, consisting of a wooden beam to which the wheels were affixed. The vehicle had no handlebar, the rider sat on a cushion on the beam and propelled and steered the machine by pushing his or her feet against the ground. In 1816 a German nobleman designed the first two-wheeled vehicle with a steering device. This machine was named the Draisine after the inventor’s name. It had a handlebar that pivoted on the frame, enabling the front wheel to be turned. In England these early models were known as hobby horses; the name dandy horse was applied particularly to the expensive pedestrian curricle, invented in 1818. The curricle was lighter in weight than the Draisine and had an adjustable saddle and elbow rest. It was patented in the United States in 1819. In 1839 driving levers and pedals were added to a machine of the Draisine type by Kirkpatrick Macmillan of Scotland. These innovations enabled the rider to drive the vehicle with the feet off the ground. The driving mechanism consisted of short cranks fixed to the rear wheel hub and connected by rods to long levers, which were hinged to the frame close to the head of the machine. The connecting rods were joined to the levers at about one-third of their length from the pedals. The machine was propelled by a downward and forward thrust of the foot. In 1846 an improved model of this machine, designed by a Scotsman, acquired the name Dalsell and was widely used in England.
The direct precursor of the modern bicycle was the French crank-driven, loose-pedaled velocipede, which became popular in France about 1855. The frame and wheels were made of wood. The tires were iron, and the pedals were attached to the hub of the front, or driver, wheel, which was slightly higher than the rear wheel. In England this machine was known as the Boneshaker, because of its effect on a rider pedaling over a rough road or a cobblestoned street. In 1869 in England, solid rubber tires mounted on steel rims were introduced in a new machine, which was the first to be patented under the modern name Bicycle.
The modifications and improvements of the next 15 years included the ball bearing and the pneumatic tire. These inventions, along with the use of weld less steel tubing and spring seats, brought the ordinary bicycle to its highest point of development. The excessive vibration and instability of the high-wheel bicycle, however, caused inventors to turn their attention to reducing the height of the bicycle.

Tuesday, July 5, 2011


SECAM, stands for "Sequential Color with Memory". It is an analog color television system first used in France. It is, historically, the first European color television standard.
Just as with the other color standards adopted for broadcast usage over the world, SECAM is a standard which permits existing monochrome television receivers predating its introduction to continue to be operate as monochrome television. Because of this compatibility requirement, color standards added a second signal to the basic monochrome signal, which carries the color information. The color information is called chrominance or C for short, while the black and white information is called the luminance or Y for short. Monochrome television receivers only display the luminance, while color receivers process both signals. Additionally, for compatibility, it is required to use no more bandwidth than the monochrome signal alone; the color signal has to be somehow inserted into the monochrome signal, without disturbing it. This insertion is possible because the spectrum of the monochrome TV signal is not continuous, hence empty space exists which can be utilized. This lack of continuity results from the discrete nature of the signal, which is divided into frames and lines. Analog color systems differ by the way in which empty space is used. In all cases, the color signal is inserted at the end of the spectrum of the monochrome signal.

SECAM differs from the other color systems by the way the R-Y and B-Y signals are carried. First, SECAM uses frequency modulation to encode chrominance information on the sub carrier. Second, instead of transmitting the red and blue information together, it only sends one of them at a time, and uses the information about the other color from the preceding line. It uses a delay line, an analog memory device, for storing one line of color information. This justifies the "Sequential, With Memory" name. Because SECAM transmits only one color at a time, it is free of the color artifacts present in NTSC and PAL resulting from the combined transmission of both signals. This means that the vertical color resolution is halved relative to NTSC. It is however not halved compared to PAL. Although PAL does not eliminate half of vertical color information during encoding, it combines color information from adjacent lines at the decoding stage, in order to compensate for "color sub carrier phase errors" occurring during the transmission of the Amplitude-Modulated color sub carrier. This is normally done using a delay line like in SECAM (the result is called PAL DL or PAL Delay-Line, sometimes interpreted as DeLuxe), but can be accomplished "visually" in cheap TV sets (PAL standard). Because the FM modulation of SECAM's color sub carrier is insensitive to phase (or amplitude) errors, phase errors do not cause loss of color saturation in SECAM, although they do in PAL. In NTSC, such errors cause color shifts.
There are five varieties of SECAM:
·         French SECAM (SECAM-L)
·         SECAM-B/G
·         SECAM D/K
·         SECAM-H
·         SECAM-K
Unlike PAL or NTSC, analog SECAM television cannot easily be edited in its native analog form. Because it uses frequency modulation, SECAM is not linear with respect to the input image (this is also what protects it against signal distortion), so electrically mixing two (synchronized) SECAM signals does not yield a valid SECAM signal, unlike with analog PAL or NTSC. For this reason, to mix two SECAM signals, they must be demodulated, the demodulated signals mixed, and are remodulated again. Hence, post-production is often done in PAL, or in component formats, with the result encoded or transcoded into SECAM at the point of transmission. Reducing the costs of running television stations is one reason for some countries' recent switchovers to PAL.