Friday, April 29, 2011

Macbook Pro 15 inch

Macbook Pro 15 inch
Expected price: approx. 1,24 Lacs
Size and weight:
Height: 0.95 inch (2.41 cm)
Width: 14.35 inches (36.4 cm)
Depth: 9.82 inches (24.9 cm)
Weight: 2.54 kg

15.4-inch (diagonal) LED-backlit glossy or optional antiglare widescreen display with support for millions of colors.
Supported resolutions: 1440x900 (native), 1280x800, 1152 x 720, 1024x640, and 800x500 pixels at 16:10 aspect ratio; 1024x768, 800x600, and 640x480 pixels at 4:3 aspect ratio; 1024x768, 800x600, and 640x480 pixels at 4:3 aspect ratio stretched; 720x480 pixels at 3:2 aspect ratio; 720x480 pixels at 3:2 aspect ratio stretched.

Processor and memory:
2.0GHz or 2.2GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 processor with 6MB shared L3 cache; or optional 2.3GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 processor with 8MB shared L3 cache.
4GB (two 2GB SO-DIMMs) of 1333MHz DDR3 memory; two SO-DIMM slots support up to 8GB.

Connections and expansion:
MagSafe power port
Gigabit Ethernet port
FireWire 800 port (up to 800 Mbps)
Two USB 2.0 ports (up to 480 Mbps)
Thunderbolt port (up to 10 Gbps)
Audio line in
Audio line out
SDXC card slot
Kensington lock slot

Wi-Fi wireless networking2; IEEE 802.11a/b/g compatible Bluetooth
Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR wireless technology
10/100/1000BASE-T Gigabit Ethernet (RJ-45 connector)

Graphics and video support:
AMD Radeon HD 6490M graphics processor with 256MB of GDDR5 memory on 2.0GHz configuration; or AMD Radeon HD 6750M graphics processor with 1GB of GDDR5 memory on 2.2GHz configuration
Intel HD Graphics 3000 with 384MB of DDR3 SDRAM shared with main memory5
Automatic graphics switching
Dual display and video mirroring: Simultaneously supports full native resolution on the built-in display and up to 2560 by 1600 pixels on an external display, both at millions of colors
FaceTime HD camera
Thunderbolt port

Thunderbolt digital video output:
Native Mini DisplayPort output
DVI output using Mini DisplayPort to DVI Adapter (optional)
VGA output using Mini DisplayPort to VGA Adapter (optional)
Dual-link DVI output using Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI Adapter supports 30-inch Apple Cinema HD Display (optional)
HDMI audio and video output using a third-party Mini DisplayPort to HDMI Adapter

Stereo speakers with subwoofers
Omni directional microphone
Audio line in mini jack (digital/analog)
Audio line out/headphone mini jack (digital/analog)
Support for Apple iPhone headset with microphone

500GB or 750GB 5400-rpm Serial ATA hard drive; optional 750GB 5400-rpm hard drive, 500GB 7200-rpm hard drive, or 128GB, 256GB, or 512GB solid-state drive6
8x slot-loading SuperDrive (DVD±R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW)
Maximum write: 8x DVD-R, DVD+R; 4x DVD-R DL (double layer), DVD+R DL (double layer), DVD-RW, DVD+RW; 24x CD-R; 10x CD-RW
Maximum read: 8x DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-ROM; 6x DVD-ROM (double layer DVD-9), DVD-R DL (double layer), DVD+R DL (double layer), DVD-RW, DVD+RW; 24x CD

Full-size backlit keyboard with 78 (U.S.) or 79 (ISO) keys, including 12 function keys and 4 arrow keys.
Multi-Touch trackpad for precise cursor control; supports inertial scrolling, pinch, rotate, swipe, three-finger swipe, four-finger swipe, tap, double-tap, and drag capabilities

Battery and power:
Up to 7 hrs wireless web
Built-in 77.5-watt-hour lithium-polymer battery
85W MagSafe Power Adapter with cable management system
MagSafe power port

Electrical and operating requirements:
Line voltage: 100V to 240V AC
Frequency: 50Hz to 60Hz
Operating temperature: 10° to 35° C
Storage temperature: -24° to 45° C

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Inventions: WHEELS

The wheel is everywhere on all our cars, trains, planes, machines, wagons, and most factory and farm equipment. What could we move without wheels? But as important as the wheel is as an invention, we don't know who exactly made the first wheel. A wheel is a device that allows heavy objects to be moved easily through rotating on an axle through its center, facilitating movement or transportation while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines. Common examples found in transport applications. A wheel, together with an axle, overcomes friction by facilitating motion by rolling. In order for wheels to rotate, a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity, or by application of another external force. More generally the term is also used for other circular objects that rotate or turn.

Wheels are very important chapter in human history and development. Wheels have very symbolic importance in all the cultures or religions or nations. We have our own national flag with Ashok Chakra in the centre. So wheels are most important invention made by humans. Wheels brought the world closer and made humans life easy. Today we can’t imagine our lives without wheels.

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Interlaced Video

Interlaced video is a technique of doubling the perceived frame rate of a video signal without consuming extra bandwidth. Since the interlaced signal contains the two fields of a video frame shot at two different times, it enhances motion perception to the viewer and reduces flicker by taking advantage of the persistence of vision effect. This results in an effective doubling of time resolution as compared with non-interlaced footage. However, interlaced signals requires a display that is natively capable of showing the individual fields in a sequential order, and only traditional CRT-based TV sets are capable of displaying interlaced signals, due to the electronic scanning and lack of apparent fixed-resolution. Interlaced scan refers to one of two common methods for "painting" a video image on an electronic display screen by scanning or displaying each line or row of pixels. This technique uses two fields to create a frame. One field contains all the odd lines in the image, the other contains all the even lines of the image. A PAL-based television display, for example, scans 50 fields every second i.e. 25 odd and 25 even. The two sets of 25 fields work together to create a full frame every 1/25th of a second, resulting in a display of 25 frames per second, but with a new half frame every 1/50th of a second.
To display interlaced video on progressive scan displays, de-interlacing is applied to the video signal.
One of the most important factors in analog television is signal bandwidth which is measured in megahertz. The greater the bandwidth, the more expensive and complex is the entire production and broadcasting chain which consist of cameras, storage systems such as tape recorders or hard disks, broadcast and reception systems such as terrestrial, cable, and satellite transmitters and receivers, or the Internet, and end-user displays such as televisions or computer monitors. Given a fixed bandwidth instead, interlace can provide a video signal with twice the display refresh rate for a given line count versus progressive scan video at similar frame rate, for instance 1080i at 60 half-frames per second, vs. 1080p at 30 full frames per second. The higher refresh rate improves the portrayal of motion, because objects in motion are captured and their position is updated on the display more often, and when objects are more stationary the human vision combines information from multiple similar half-frames resulting in the same perceived resolution as progressive full frames. This technique is only useful though, if the source material is available in higher refresh rates. Cinema movies are typically recorded at 24fps, and gets no real benefit from common interlacing techniques.

Monday, April 18, 2011

Philips 5000 Series LED TV

Philips 5000 series LED TV 55”
Expected Price: 1,80,000/-
Brightness: 450 cd/m²
Diagonal screen size (inch): 55 inch
Panel resolution: 1920x1080p
 Picture enhancement: 3/2 - 2/2 motion pull down, 3D Combfilter, Color Transient Improvement, Digital Noise Reduction, Dynamic contrast, Luminance Transient Improver
Response time (typical): 6 ms
Viewing angle: 178º (H) / 178º (V)
Dynamic screen contrast: 500000:1
Built-in speakers: 2
Output power (RMS): 16W
Computer formats: 1920 x 1080, 60Hz
Video formats: 1080i, 60Hz

Friday, April 15, 2011

XBOX 360

The Xbox 360 is the second video game console produced by Microsoft, and the successor to the Xbox. The Xbox 360 competes with Sony's PlayStation 3 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. The Xbox 360 was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005, with detailed launch and game information divulged later that month at the Electronic Entertainment Expo. Some major features of the Xbox 360 are its integrated Xbox Live service that allows players to compete online, download arcade games, game demos, trailers, TV shows, music and movies and its Windows Media Center multimedia capabilities. Xbox 360 model and features integrated 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi, TOSLINK S/PDIF optical audio output, 5 USB 2.0 ports and a special AUX port.
At launch, the Xbox 360 was available in two configurations: the "Xbox 360" package and the "Xbox 360 Core,". Current version Xbox 360 S consoles feature redesigned internal architecture with the Valhalla motherboard, which allows for around 30% more space than previous motherboards and the XCGPU, an integrated CPU/GPU/eDRAM chip using a 45 nm fabrication process. This allows them to be both smaller and quieter than the previous versions of the Xbox 360. They also feature 5 standard USB 2.0 ports and an additional custom USB port for use with peripherals such as the Kinect sensor. Unlike older models, 2.4 GHz 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi and a TOSLINK S/PDIF optical audio connector are also built-in, allowing for digital audio and wireless networking without the need for external adapters. The Memory Unit slots found on previous consoles have been removed in favor of the USB flash drive solution added in a previous system software update and the power and DVD drive eject 'buttons' are touch sensitive rather than the physical buttons found on previous models. The external hard disk drive connector has also been swapped for an internal bay for use with a proprietary hard drive. The first Xbox 360 S SKU to be revealed includes a 250 GB hard drive and its casing features a glossy black finish. A second SKU which includes 4 GB of internal flash storage and has matte black casing was released on August 3, 2010 in the US.

Monday, April 11, 2011


The Xbox is a video game console manufactured by Microsoft. It was first released on November 15, 2001 in North America. Xbox is the predecessor to the Xbox 360. It was Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market, and competed with Sony's PlayStation 2, Sega's Dreamcast, and Nintendo's GameCube. The integrated Xbox Live service allowed players to compete online. The Xbox was discontinued in late 2006.
The Xbox first edition was initially developed by a small Microsoft team that included game developer Seamus Blackley. Popular launch games for the console included Dead or Alive 3, Amped: Freestyle Snowboarding, Halo: Combat Evolved, Fuzion Frenzy and Project Gotham Racing, Jet Set Radio Future. The name for the Xbox was originally the DirectX box as it came from a group of Microsoft DirectX developers, but later changed to Xbox after focus testing. Nvidia ceased production of the Xbox's GPU in August 2005, which marked the end of Xbox production. The Xbox 360 had superior storage, audio and video capabilities compared to the original Xbox.
The Xbox was the first video game console to feature a built-in hard disk drive, used primarily for storing game saves and content downloaded from Xbox Live. This eliminated the need for separate memory cards. An Xbox user could rip music from standard audio CDs to the hard drive, and these songs were used for the custom soundtracks in some games. The Xbox was the first gaming product to feature Dolby Interactive Content-Encoding Technology, which allows real-time Dolby Digital encoding in game consoles. Previous game consoles could only use Dolby Digital 5.1 during non-interactive "cut scene" playback. The Xbox is based on commodity PC hardware and is much larger and heavier than its contemporaries. This is largely due to a bulky tray-loading DVD-ROM drive and the standard-size 3.5 inch hard drive. The Xbox has also pioneered safety features, such as breakaway cables for the controllers to prevent the console from being pulled from the surface it rests on.

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Electronic Terms ........ 9

PAL - System of video transmission used in Europe and many other countries internationally
Pan and Scan - A procedure where a 4:3 image is taken from a widescreen source by clipping the edges.
Pixels - A Picture Element - the smallest element you can see on a monitor or television display. The more pixels an image contains, the higher its resolution.
Premiere - Video editing software packed created by Adobe Systems.
Progressive - Non-interlace full-frame footage or display device, so-called because a progressive image is displayed in one fast sweep, unlike interlaced images which are displayed in two passes, each pass displaying every other line.
Psychoacoustics - The theory of how the brain interprets audio.
Pulldown - This is the process of making multiple fields from frames in order to change the framerate of a source. Film footage is converted from 24fps to 30fps by creating 3 Fields out of the 2 fields usually contained in a single frame (i.e. 3:2 pulldown). PAL footage uses 2:2 pulldown where 2 fields are kept as 2 fields.
Quicktime - Software developed by Apple for the compression/decompression of video. Contains various codecs including Sorenson and recently Apple's own mpeg4 implementation.
Rainbow Artifacts/Moire - The yellow, purple (and other) coloured artifacts sometimes found on sharp black edges in video footage.
Resolution - The width and height of an image or display in pixels.
RGB - Red Green Blue, a method of storing video data by its red, green and blue components which combined make any colour of light you can see.
Ripping - the process of extracting (usually video) data from a file/format that is dificult to access/alter by normal methods. In particular in reference to the decryption process involved in extracting video data from DVDs. Also used to describe the same extraction process for CD audio and video or audio from games.
Sample Rate - The amount of audio samples every second in an audio stream. CDs are sampled 44100 times a seond.
Saturation - Related to chroma, you can think of saturation as how a colour looks under certain lighting conditions. For instance, a room painted a solid colour will appear different at night than in daylight.
SBC - Smart Bitrate Control, a method of accessing the Fast-motion and Slow-motion aspects of the DivX3.11a codec in order to allow variable bitrate encodes. Pioneered by Nando in his program Nandub.
Scanlines - the horizontal lines that comprise one video frame.
SECAM - System of video transmission used in France, similar to PAL - also plays at 25fps but has a different chroma carriers.
Sorenson - A compression codec available in Quicktime.
Spatial - To do with the 2d space element (i.e. the contents of a single frame) of video. For example, a spatial smoother smooths out blemishes that occur within an area of pixels.
Stereo - Audio that contains two audio channels, a left and a right.
Temporal - To do with the time dimension of video, i.e. the changes of the contents of a video in time. For example, a temporal smoother smooths out blemishes that occur on an individual pixel within a range (period) of frames.
Timecode - The method of interpreting frames in time for use in video editing within given standards (such as NTSC, PAL, Film etc) see also Drop-Frame Timecode.
Video for Windows - The main backbone for video compression codec within windows.
Virtualdub - an open source Windows program for capturing and doing simple editing/compressing of avi files.
VirtualdubAVS - an adpatation of Virtualdub by Belgador to allow easy access to AVIsynth scripts.
Wave - Another term for a (usually) uncompressed audio stream as it can be graphically represented by a waveform.
YUV - A method of storing video information that gives priority (more bits of data) to the luminance of a sample.