Saturday, April 9, 2011

Electronic Terms ........ 9

PAL - System of video transmission used in Europe and many other countries internationally
Pan and Scan - A procedure where a 4:3 image is taken from a widescreen source by clipping the edges.
Pixels - A Picture Element - the smallest element you can see on a monitor or television display. The more pixels an image contains, the higher its resolution.
Premiere - Video editing software packed created by Adobe Systems.
Progressive - Non-interlace full-frame footage or display device, so-called because a progressive image is displayed in one fast sweep, unlike interlaced images which are displayed in two passes, each pass displaying every other line.
Psychoacoustics - The theory of how the brain interprets audio.
Pulldown - This is the process of making multiple fields from frames in order to change the framerate of a source. Film footage is converted from 24fps to 30fps by creating 3 Fields out of the 2 fields usually contained in a single frame (i.e. 3:2 pulldown). PAL footage uses 2:2 pulldown where 2 fields are kept as 2 fields.
Quicktime - Software developed by Apple for the compression/decompression of video. Contains various codecs including Sorenson and recently Apple's own mpeg4 implementation.
Rainbow Artifacts/Moire - The yellow, purple (and other) coloured artifacts sometimes found on sharp black edges in video footage.
Resolution - The width and height of an image or display in pixels.
RGB - Red Green Blue, a method of storing video data by its red, green and blue components which combined make any colour of light you can see.
Ripping - the process of extracting (usually video) data from a file/format that is dificult to access/alter by normal methods. In particular in reference to the decryption process involved in extracting video data from DVDs. Also used to describe the same extraction process for CD audio and video or audio from games.
Sample Rate - The amount of audio samples every second in an audio stream. CDs are sampled 44100 times a seond.
Saturation - Related to chroma, you can think of saturation as how a colour looks under certain lighting conditions. For instance, a room painted a solid colour will appear different at night than in daylight.
SBC - Smart Bitrate Control, a method of accessing the Fast-motion and Slow-motion aspects of the DivX3.11a codec in order to allow variable bitrate encodes. Pioneered by Nando in his program Nandub.
Scanlines - the horizontal lines that comprise one video frame.
SECAM - System of video transmission used in France, similar to PAL - also plays at 25fps but has a different chroma carriers.
Sorenson - A compression codec available in Quicktime.
Spatial - To do with the 2d space element (i.e. the contents of a single frame) of video. For example, a spatial smoother smooths out blemishes that occur within an area of pixels.
Stereo - Audio that contains two audio channels, a left and a right.
Temporal - To do with the time dimension of video, i.e. the changes of the contents of a video in time. For example, a temporal smoother smooths out blemishes that occur on an individual pixel within a range (period) of frames.
Timecode - The method of interpreting frames in time for use in video editing within given standards (such as NTSC, PAL, Film etc) see also Drop-Frame Timecode.
Video for Windows - The main backbone for video compression codec within windows.
Virtualdub - an open source Windows program for capturing and doing simple editing/compressing of avi files.
VirtualdubAVS - an adpatation of Virtualdub by Belgador to allow easy access to AVIsynth scripts.
Wave - Another term for a (usually) uncompressed audio stream as it can be graphically represented by a waveform.
YUV - A method of storing video information that gives priority (more bits of data) to the luminance of a sample.

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